Metal Cutting: Turning Tool and Process Basics

Turning Tool and Process Basics gives learners insight on the cutting tool, workholding device, and cutting operation selection process for turning centers. These topics are tailored to a level appropriate for a CNC turning center setup operator, and industry professionals seeking to understand the job functions of this role. Combining live video with animated demonstrations, this course covers everything from cutting parameters, to L/D ratio and workholding selection, to the format of canned cycles in CNC programming.


Learning Objectives

  • Identify parts of a turning center central to machine operation.
  • Recognize the relationship between tool geometry and cutting parameters.
  • Understand how L/D ratio relates to the selection of workholding devices.
  • Recognize a turning operation based on its detailed tool path.
  • Interpret the function of canned cycles and subprograms in CNC programming.
Course Length: 6 HRS

Table of Contents

CNC Turning Center Construction

  • Mechanical Components
    • Chuck and Spindle
    • Turret
    • Tailstock
    • Ball Screws
    • Guideways – Sliding Guideways
    • Guideways – Linear Motion (LM) Guides
  • Sub-Systems
    • Coolant System
    • Chip Conveyor
    • Lubrication System
  • Electrical Components
    • CNC Controller – Motion Control Loop
  • Spindle Motor
  • Axis Motor

Cutting Operation and Cutting Parameter Details

  • Turning
    • Rough Turning
    • Finish Turning
  • Boring
    • Rough Boring
    • Finish Boring
  • Grooving
    • Importance of Dwell in Grooving
    • External Radial Grooving
    • Internal Radial Grooving
    • Face Grooving
  • Parting Off
  • Threading
    • First Thread Depth
    • External Threading – External Multi-Start Threading
    • Internal Threading
  • Drilling
    • Drilling Tool Path
    • High-Speed Peck Drilling
    • Peck Drilling
  • Tapping
  • Reaming
  • Coolant Use in Machining
  • Cutting Zone Heat Removal
  • Cutting Parameters
    • Cutting Parameter Selection
    • Cutting Speed – Cutting Speed and Diameter
    • Cutting Speed – Constant Surface Speed (CSS)
    • Cutting Speed – Limiting Spindle Speed
  • Feed Rate
    • Effect of Feed Rate on Surface Finish
  • Depth of Cut
  • Material Removal Rate (MRR)
  • Cutting Power
  • Effect of Cutting Parameters on Tool Wear
    • Types of Tool Wear – Crater Wear
    • Types of Tool Wear – Flank Wear
    • Types of Tool Wear – Tool Deformation
    • Types of Tool Wear – Chipping
    • Types of Tool Wear – Notching
    • Types of Tool Wear – Mechanical Fracture
    • Types of Tool Wear – Thermal Cracking
    • Built-Up Edge (BUE)
    • Tool Life

Cutting Tool Construction and Selection

  • Cutting Tool Materials
    • High-Speed Steel (HSS)
    • Tungsten Carbide
    • Cermet
    • Ceramic
    • Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN)
    • Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD)
  • Turning and Boring Tool Geometry
    • Tool Holder Clamping – Top Clamping
    • Tool Holder Clamping – Lever Clamping
    • Tool Holder Clamping – Top and Lever Clamping
    • Tool Holder Clamping – Screw Clamping
    • Tool Holder Clamping – Hybrid Clamping
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Nose Radius – Nose Radius Selection
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Nose Radius – Wiper Style
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Positive vs. Negative Inserts – Positive Style
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Positive vs. Negative Inserts – Negative Style
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Chipbreakers and Chip Formation – Chipbreaker Designation
    • Insert Cutting Edge Geometry – Chipbreakers and Chip Formation – Chip Formation
  • Grooving Tool Geometry
    • External Radial Grooving Tool – Insert Geometry
    • Internal Radial Grooving Tool
    • Face Grooving Tool
  • Threading Tool Geometry
    • External Threading Tool – Insert Geometry – Insert Points
    • External Threading Tool – Insert Geometry – Insert Profiles
    • Internal Threading Tool
  • Drill Geometry
    • Coolant-Thru Drills
    • Indexable Drill
    • Cutting Geometry
  • Tap Geometry
  • Reamer Geometry
  • Cutting Tool Selection
    • Tool Selection Process
    • Tool Hardness vs. Toughness

Workholding Device Selection

  • Workholding Principles
    • Degrees of Freedom
    • Two Setups
  • Workholding Devices
    • Chuck – Jaw Movement
    • Chuck – Hard Jaws
    • Chuck – Soft Jaws
    • Tailstock
    • Steady Rest
    • Collet
    • Faceplate
    • Turning Fixtures
  • L/D (Length to Diameter) Ratio
    • L/D Ratio Rules of Thumb – Calculating Holding Points
    • L/D Ratio Rules of Thumb – L/D 1—3
    • L/D Ratio Rules of Thumb – L/D 3—6
    • L/D Ratio Rules of Thumb – L/D 6—12

Programming Interpretation

  • Spindle Direction Commands
    • Tool Face Direction
    • Turret Location
    • Threading
  • Tool Nose Radius Compensation (TNRC)
    • TNRC Commands
  • G02 and G03, Circular Interpolation
    • Circular Interpolation Commands
  • G04, Dwell
  • Canned Cycles
    • G70 Finish Turning Cycle
    • G71, Stock Removal in Turning Cycle
    • G72, Stock Removal in Facing Cycle
    • G73, Multipass Turning Cycle
    • G74, Axial Drilling Cycle
    • G75, Radial Grooving Cycle
    • G76, Thread Cutting Cycle
  • Subprograms

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