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Beyond Symbols: Fluency in GD&T Decreases Cost

Due to the complex nature of the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) standard, a company’s bottom line profitability can be affected as a result of reading and interpreting errors. Users who have a lack of knowledge concerning the rules, symbols, conventions, and associated terminology of GD&T are more likely to make incorrect decisions.

Render of a projected tolerance zone

Render of a projected tolerance zone

One such area where a deficit in GD&T language fluency and comprehension can impact manufacturing is in the prototyping process. Situations where a limited understanding can affect this crucial process include the following:

Ineffective design: Designers who do not fully understand the concepts of GD&T may not include GD&T on a print where it would be beneficial. As a result, the part is now much more difficult to manufacture as required information, such as position tolerances, was not provided to ensure the part met fit, form, and function.

Inaccurate manufacturing: Even when GD&T is effectively provided on a print, it may not be understood by the manufacturing team. As a result, there is a higher chance that the part will not be manufactured to the print’s requirements, thus impeding the assembly process. Inaccurate manufacturing means wasted materials, time, and money.

Increased timeline: A limited understanding of GD&T in design, manufacture, or both can lead to multiple back and forth cycles in the prototyping process. With every additional cycle, the time it takes to bring the part into production increases, causing the prototyping timeline to grow longer. Longer timelines equal higher costs, which will ultimately affect bottom line profitability.

The inability to understand and interpret GD&T at any stage of development can have a huge effect on a company’s track to production. Therefore, it is essential for individuals within an organization’s design and manufacturing teams to all be well versed in the language of GD&T in order to have the greatest potential for success.

In the next installment of our GD&T series, we will discuss how an incomplete understanding of GD&T can impact product quality. We at THORS are also happy to announce that our GD&T Fundamentals course has launched!


Kavita Krishnamurthy is an ASQ certified Six Sigma Black Belt with over 15 years of experience in the field of process improvement, manufacturing engineering, and quality management in the automotive and gear industries. She is also the subject matter expert of our GD&T Fundamentals course.

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Lack of GD&T Knowledge Can Impact Your Bidding Process

As a complex standard, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) can lead to reading and interpreting errors. Users who do not have the prerequisite print reading knowledge and ability to see in 2D and 3D space will have an increased difficulty in acquiring the necessary GD&T language fluency. As a result, potential disconnects can occur between the design, manufacture, and inspection of parts, all affecting a company’s bottom line.

Engineering drawing illustrating complex datum reference frames.

Engineering drawing illustrating complex datum reference frames.

One critical area in which a lack of GD&T knowledge can be detrimental to an organization is in the bidding process. Ways in which a limited understanding of GD&T can affect cost estimating includes the following:

Underbidding: Individuals involved in cost estimating who do not understand GD&T could potentially underbid as a result of their lack of knowledge. A limited level of GD&T fluency can cause individuals to undervalue the requirements necessary to make the part. As a result, the responsibility is now on the manufacturing team to make sure the part is manufactured correctly within cost, a task they may not be able to execute.

Overbidding: On the other hand, individuals involved in cost estimating who do not understand GD&T could also potentially overbid due to their lack of knowledge. In this situation, their limited language fluency may cause them to panic at the sight of the GD&T-related symbols, making them add cost. This additional cost arises from the belief that GD&T increases the time it takes to manufacture the part. As a result, the company could lose the bid for a product they could have manufactured. If they do win the bid, they may have made it easy on themselves to manufacture the part; however, they still may not realize how GD&T is going to help make the part more profitable.

In the bidding process, both underbidding and overbidding have their own ramifications. Whether a bid is won but undervalued or lost where there could have been profit, both realities affect a company’s bottom line profitability. It is in these crucial situations where having a full comprehension of GD&T helps organizations and individuals have the greatest potential for success.

In the next installment of our GD&T series, we will take a closer look at the impact of GD&T on the prototyping process. We at THORS are also happy to announce that our GD&T Fundamentals course has launched!


Kavita Krishnamurthy is an ASQ certified Six Sigma Black Belt with over 15 years of experience in the field of process improvement, manufacturing engineering, and quality management in the automotive and gear industries. She is also the subject matter expert of our GD&T Fundamentals course.